The Communist Party of China (CPC), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Although nominally it exists alongside the United Front, a coalition of governing political parties, in practice, the CPC is the only party in the PRC, maintaining a unitary government and centralizing the state, military, and media. The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the national constitution, though due to the Party's Leninist roots, it stands above the law. The current party leader is Xi Jinping, who holds the title of General Secretary of the Central Committee. Since becoming an institution of the state, aside from official commitment to communism and Marxism-Leninism, the party also has de facto unrecognized factions including consumerist and neoliberal figures including business people on the right who effectively support capitalism, as well as factions on the left that oppose the right in the party, and other factions. The party was founded in July 1921 in Shanghai. After a lengthy civil war, the CPC defeated its primary rival, the Kuomintang (KMT), and assumed full control of mainland China by 1949. The Kuomintang retreated to the island of Taiwan, where it still remains to this day. Both before and after the founding of the PRC, the CPC's history is defined by various power struggles and ideological battles, including destructive socio-political movements such as the Cultural Revolution. At first a conventional member of the international Communist movement, the CPC broke with its counterpart in the Soviet Union over id
ological differences in the 1960s. The Communist Party's ideology was redefined under Deng Xiaoping to incorporate principles of market economics, and the corresponding reforms enabled rapid and sustained economic growth. The CPC is the world's largest political party, claiming over 80 million members at the end of 2010 which constitutes about 6.0% of the total population of mainland China. The vast majority of military and civil officials are members of the Party. Since 1978, the Communist Party has attempted to institutionalize transitions of power and consolidate its internal structure. The modern party stresses unity and avoids public conflict while practicing a pragmatic and open democratic centralism within the party structure. Sun Yee On, or New Righteousness and Peace Commercial and Industrial Guild, is one of the leading triads in Hong Kong and mainland China, with the most members – more than 55,000 – worldwide. It is also believed to be active in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands and in the government of Guangdong Province in China. Wo Shing Wo (?) is the original Wo Group Triad, and it is the triad with longest tradition in Hong Kong. Wo Shing Wo was established in Sham Shui Po in 1930 and, while maintaining its traditional stronghold in Tsuen Wan, it has extended its influence to Tsim Sha Tsui and Mong Kok. It also operates in Tai Po and Sheung Shui. The triad is known to be involved in extortion, drug trafficking, gambling and prostitution. The group continues to use the old Hongmen Secret Society initiating ceremony for newly recruited members.